First trimester screening for preeclampsia
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Introduction. Preeclampsia (PE) is a multisystem syndrome of the second half of pregnancy characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and maternal organ dysfunction. It affects 2-8% of all pregnancies worldwide and is a leading cause of both maternal and perinatal death. Moreover, PE is in high percentage associated with fetal prematurity. Material and methods. This study is a literature review of articles published from 2006 to 2017, held in the following databases: PUBMED, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and online Knowledge Library (B-ON). For this research 51 articles responding to inclusion criteria and key words regarding preeclampsia screening and similar works were selected. Results. More than 50,000 maternal deaths per year worldwide are a consequence of PE. Among most serious complications Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets (HELLP syndrome), eclampsia, stroke, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are considered. It is mandatory to screen pregnant women during first trimester according both maternal characteristics and parameters. Conclusion. Owing placental alteration linked with PP, an opportune screening of risk population and aspirin administration (150 mg per day from 11-14 weeks until 36 weeks’ gestation) may reduce maternal and fetal complications, while for chronic hypertension the benefits of this treatment during pregnancy is controversial.
KEY WORDS: Preeclampsia - Hypertension - Aspirin - Prenatal screening.