Assessment on fetal renal volume and function in normal and growth restricted fetuses
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Background. IUGR (Intrauterine Growth Restriction) increases the morbidity and mortality of fetuses and, in the future, it will lead to fetal programming such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke and kidney failure. Objective. To determine renal volume and function in Normal and Growth Restricted Fetuses at 36 weeks gestation. Methods. A cohort study was conducted for 28 up to 36 weeks gestation in 20 IUGR fetuses compared with normal fetuses by examining renal volume, the volume of the secretion of urine, amniotic fluid index. Examination of renal volume is conducted with 3D VOCAL technique with 30° rotation, as well as upon the volume of the bladder. Results. The mean left kidney volumes of IUGR and normal fetuses were 6.47 ml, SD 1.85 ml and 11.09, SD 2.91 ml respectively. It was statistically and significantly different based on Mann-Whitney test at p 0.001. On the other side, the mean right kidney volumes of IUGR fetuses and the normal ones were also statistically and significantly different. They were 6.07 ml, SD 1.9 and 10.75 ml, SD 3.35 ml respectively. The mean of urine volume per hour of IUGR fetuses was 8.21 ml, SD 3.48 ml and the normal ones were 19.23 cc, SD 5.79 which was statistically different. Although it had not reached oligohydramnios but the amount of amniotic fluid of IUGR fetuses was less than that of the normal ones, it signified 6.57 ml, SD 2.28 ml compared to 11.85 SD 2.53 respectively. Such different figures were statistically and significantly different at p 0.001. Conclusion. Fetal renal volume with growth restriction is lower than that of the normal ones and so does the secretion of urine between the two groups of the fetuses. It is also discovered that the volume of amniotic fluid index of IUGR fetuses is lower too than that of the normal fetuses.
KEY WORDS: IUGR - Fetal programming - 3D VOCAL.